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North American Ed. Dec 2021
Asia/Pacific Ed. 2022
North American Ed. Dec 2022
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Who Should Attend
The Book
Q&A's On Ice Cream
Accelerated Shelf-life
Antifreeze Proteins
Buttermilk: Use of
Calcium Nutrient
Content Claims
Chocolate Ice Cream:
Color in Ice Cream
Cost Management
Cost Management
Drawing Temperatures
Filtered Milks
Glycemic Index
"Good For You"
I/C: Formulation
Hybrid Products
Ice Cream as
Functional Food
Ice Cream:
Ice Cream Inclusions
Ice Cream: Shelf Life
Ice Cream Sweetness
Ingredients Cost
Lactose Reduction
Line Cost Averaging
Low Carb
Ice Cream
Low Carb
I/C: Formulation
Low Temperature
Meltdown Behavior
Mix Aging
Mix Composition:
Effect on Flavor
Mix Processing
No Sugar-Added
Ice Cream
Adding Inclusions
Preventing Soggy
Cones & Wafers
Premium Light
Ice Cream
Prevention of Coarse
Prevention of Fat
Sensory Evaluation-
Sucrose Replacement
Sweeteners: Blending
Vanilla Crisis I
Vanilla Crisis II
Visual Defects:
Pink Discolouration
Visual Defects:
White Particles
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Questions & Answers
from "On Ice Cream" featured in Dairy Foods magazine
and sourced from "On Ice Cream" technical short courses.

Gumminess in Ice Cream:

Question: What factors cause ice cream to get gummy?

Answer: The term gummy is used to describe ice cream that is sticky or stringy when dipped. In the mouth it offers strong resistance to structure loss and mechanical manipulation. The effect is reminiscent of eating a gumdrop, hence the name.

Gumminess is related to the rheology of the unfrozen portion of ice cream, which in turn is related to the nature and degree of water immobilization. Although water immobilization is important to control ice crystal growth, a point is reached where the unfrozen product becomes sticky and very cohesive, i.e., gummy. Sometimes some gumminess is desired in ice cream; however in most cases, manufacturers do not want a gummy ice cream. To reduce the degree of gumminess in a product that currently shows that characteristic, several factors should be considered.

The primary considerations affecting water immobilization and therefore gumminess, include the nature and level of stabilizing colloids, high-molecular weight components of corn syrup solids (CSS), some bulking agents (in the case of lower fat products) and milk protein. To reduce (or manage) the degree of gumminess, the amounts and/or types of these components should be adjusted.
The stabilizing colloid most likely to be involved with gummy ice cream is guar gum. If guar gum is a major component of a stabilizer system and gumminess is a problem, the use of an alter-native stabilizer like carboxymethyl cellulose can be helpful. Most of the time hydrocolloid level stays the same.

Likewise, water immobilization increases as the CSS dextrose equivalent (DE) decreases. However, the relative benefits of products like 36 DE CSS to ice cream quality and economics are so great, that it is highly desirable to use 36 DE CSS and manipulate the degree of gumminess by adjusting the level of 36 DE CSS or other ingredients.

In similar ways, the water-holding activity of milk proteins impacts gumminess; therefore take care when selecting and using milk proteins in order to manage gumminess effectively.

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