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North American Ed. Dec 2021
Asia/Pacific Ed. 2022
North American Ed. Dec 2022
Future Programs
Custom/On Site

Who Should Attend
The Book
Q&A's On Ice Cream
Accelerated Shelf-life
Antifreeze Proteins
Buttermilk: Use of
Calcium Nutrient
Content Claims
Chocolate Ice Cream:
Color in Ice Cream
Cost Management
Cost Management
Drawing Temperatures
Filtered Milks
Glycemic Index
"Good For You"
I/C: Formulation
Hybrid Products
Ice Cream as
Functional Food
Ice Cream:
Ice Cream Inclusions
Ice Cream: Shelf Life
Ice Cream Sweetness
Ingredients Cost
Lactose Reduction
Line Cost Averaging
Low Carb
Ice Cream
Low Carb
I/C: Formulation
Low Temperature
Meltdown Behavior
Mix Aging
Mix Composition:
Effect on Flavor
Mix Processing
No Sugar-Added
Ice Cream
Adding Inclusions
Preventing Soggy
Cones & Wafers
Premium Light
Ice Cream
Prevention of Coarse
Prevention of Fat
Sensory Evaluation-
Sucrose Replacement
Sweeteners: Blending
Vanilla Crisis I
Vanilla Crisis II
Visual Defects:
Pink Discolouration
Visual Defects:
White Particles
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Questions & Answers
from "On Ice Cream" featured in Dairy Foods magazine
and sourced from "On Ice Cream" technical short courses.

Effect of Mix Composition on Flavor:

Question: What is the effect of base mix composition on ice cream flavor delivery?

Answer: Ice cream flavor includes taste (sweet, salty, bitter, sour and savory) and aroma. The importance of the base mix composition on flavor delivery in the finished product cannot be understated.

Flavor and functional quality of base mix ingredients, as well as other factors such as the amount, type and ratios of various ingredients including sweeteners, fat, protein, bulking agents, salts, and the direct and indirect impact of emulsifiers, stabilizers, ice and overrun all affect the finished product flavor. Amount (intensity) and type (quality) of any given flavoring ingredient are also important. Anything that modifies these elements inherently modifies perception, quality and overall acceptability of flavor.

Although theoretical sweetness offers a good way to measure sweetness, each individual sweetener, or blend of sweeteners, yields a different sweetness profile, including a variety of aftertastes, which may or may not be compatible with the characterizing flavor of the finished ice cream.

Milkfat, cocoa butter, egg yolk and other added fats are good carriers of a variety of fat-soluble flavor chemicals. They can help to mask various undesirable flavors but are also potential sources of off flavors. Thus, fat can significantly modify the delivery of flavor. Some flavors that are desirable in high-fat mixes may not be very desirable in low-fat mixes. Emulsifiers can also impact flavor. They do so by not only adding undesirable flavor elements when misused, but they can modify (good or bad) the contribution of the fat they emulsify.

Proteins that are highly soluble, of high molecular weight or of high concentration can bind volatile components of flavors resulting in changes that again, may or may not be acceptable.

Corn syrup, bulking agents and stabilizers are often added to ice cream mix to provide body (i.e., chew) and a smooth texture; however, these ingredients can affect flavor delivery in the finished product by muting or otherwise modifying flavor quality. Not using these types of ingredients has consequences too. Weak body and/or coarse (icy) texture can negatively impact flavor release in the finished product.

Non-ingredients such as ice crystals and air (overrun) can also impact flavor perception by modifying how the ice cream eats and warms during consumption and releases both taste and aroma components of flavor.

There is also need to consider the type of flavor. What works well for non-acid flavors may not work adequately for fruit flavors. Finally, don't forget the need for the base mix to be compatible with the flavor and physical needs of particulate and non-particulate inclusions.

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